Dryocopus is a genus of large powerful woodpeckers, typically 35–45 cm in length. It has representatives in North and South America, Europe, and Asia; some South American species are endangered. It was believed to be closely related to the American genus Campephilus, but it is part of an entirely different lineage of woodpeckers altogether (Benz et al., 2006)
F. Boie, 1826
Their breeding habitat is forested areas with large trees, where they nest in a large cavity in a dead tree or a dead part of a tree. They may excavate a new hole each year, creating habitat for other large cavity nesting birds. They are non-migratory permanent residents.
They are mainly black in plumage with red on the crown of the head, often as a crest. Most species also have some white areas of plumage, especially on the head, and some have additional red facial markings.
The male, female and juvenile plumages of each species usually differ, often in the extent of red on the crown and elsewhere on the head. The flight is strong and direct, and the calls are typically loud wild laughs. The drumming of these large birds can be heard from a great distance.
The genus Dryocopus was introduced by the German naturalist Friedrich Boie in 1826. The name is from the Ancient Greek word for a woodpecker druokopos combining druos "tree" and kopos "beating".
The genus contains six species.
|Image||Scientific name||Common Name||Distribution|
|Dryocopus lineatus||Lineated woodpecker||Mexico south to northern Argentina and on Trinidad|
|Dryocopus pileatus||Pileated woodpecker||eastern North America, the Great Lakes, the boreal forests of Canada, and parts of the Pacific coast|
|Dryocopus schulzii||Black-bodied woodpecker||Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay.|
|Dryocopus javensis||White-bellied woodpecker||Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia|
|Dryocopus hodgei||Andaman woodpecker||Andaman Islands in India.|
|Dryocopus martius||Black woodpecker||Spain across the whole of Europe, excluding Ireland, the United Kingdom and northern Scandinavia|
- Boie, Friedrich (1826). "Generalübersicht". Isis von Oken (in German). 19. Col 977.
- Jobling, J.A. (2018). del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E., eds. "Key to Scientific Names in Ornithology". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Woodpeckers". World Bird List Version 8.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- Benz, Brett W.; Robbins, Mark B.; Peterson, A. Townsend (2006). "Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): Placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40: 389–399. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.021. PMID 16635580.
- Gorman, Gerard (2004): Woodpeckers of Europe: A Study of the European Picidae. Bruce Coleman, UK. ISBN 1-872842-05-4.
- Gorman, Gerard (2011): The Black Woodpecker: A monograph on Dryocopus martius. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 978-84-96553-79-8.
- Grimmett, Richard; Inskipp, Carol & Inskipp, Tim (1999): Birds of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.. ISBN 0-691-04910-6
- Jobling, James A (1991). A Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. OUP. ISBN 0-19-854634-3.