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Notoungulata is an extinct order of hoofed, sometimes heavy-bodied mammalian ungulates that inhabited South America during the Paleocene to the mid-Holocene, living from approximately 57 Ma to 5,000 years ago.[1][2]

Notoungulata
Temporal range: Late Paleocene (Itaboraian)-Holocene
~57–0.005 Ma
Toxodon.jpg
Interpretation of Toxodon platensis
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Infraclass:
(unranked) Mesaxonia
Superorder:
Order:
Notoungulata

Suborders and Families

See text

Contents

TaxonomyEdit

Due to the isolated nature of South America, many notoungulates evolved along convergent lines into forms that resembled mammals on other continents. Examples of this are Pachyrukhos, a notoungulate that evolved to fill the role of rabbits and hares, and Homalodotherium, which evolved to resemble chalicotheres. During the Pleistocene, Toxodon was the largest common notoungulate. Most of the group (Mixotoxodon, Piauhytherium and Toxodon being exceptions) became extinct after the landbridge between North and South America was formed, allowing North American ungulates to enter South America in the Great American Interchange and out-compete the native fauna.[3][4][5] Mixotoxodon was the only member of the group to be successful in invading Central America and southern North America, reaching as far north as Texas.[6]

This order is united with other South American ungulates in the super-order Meridiungulata. The notoungulate and litoptern native ungulates of South America have been shown by studies of collagen and mitochondrial DNA sequences to be a sister group to the perissodactyls, making them true ungulates.[7][8][9] The estimated divergence date is 66 million years ago.[9] This conflicts with the results of some morphological analyses which favoured them as afrotherians. It is in line with some more recent morphological analyses which suggested they were basal euungulates. Panperissodactyla has been proposed as the name of an unranked clade to include perissodactyls and their extinct South American ungulate relatives.[7]

Cifelli has argued that Notioprogonia is paraphyletic, as it would include the ancestors of the remaining suborders. Similarly, Cifelli indicated that Typotheria would be paraphyletic if it excluded Hegetotheria and he advocated inclusion of Archaeohyracidae and Hegetotheriidae in Typotheria.[10]

Notoungulata were for many years taken to include the order Arctostylopida, whose fossils are found mainly in China. Recent studies, however, have concluded that Arctostylopida are more properly classified as gliriforms, and that the notoungulates were therefore never found outside South and Central America.[11]

Based on an analysis of 133 morphological characters in 50 notoungulate genera, Billet in 2011 concluded that Homalodotheriidae, Leontiniidae, Toxodontidae, Interatheriidae, Mesotheriidae, and Hegetotheriidae are the only monophyletic families of notoungulates.[12]

Notoungulata

Henricosbornia

Simpsonotus

Notostylops

Pyrotherium

Toxodontia

Pampahippus

Ryphodon

Thomashuxleya

Periphragnis

Pleurostylodon

Homalodotheriidae

Asmodeus

Homalodotherium

Leontiniidae

Colpodon

Ancylocoelus

Leontinia

Scarrittia

Eomorphippus

Eurygenium

Rhynchippus

Morphippus

Pascualihippus

Argyrohippus

Toxodontidae

Nesodon

Adinotherium

Ponanskytherium

Hoffstetterius

Toxodon

Typotheria

Colbertia

Oldfieldthomasia

Campanorco

Acropithecus

Ultrapithecus

Interatheriidae

Notopithecus

Federicoanaya

Protypotherium

Miocochilius

Archaeophylus

Plagiarthrus

Interatherium

Cochilius

Eohyrax

Pseudhyrax

Mesotheriidae

Plesiotypotherium

Mesotherium

Trachytherus

Archaeotypotherium

Archaeohyrax

Hegetotheriidae

Prohegetotherium

Hegetotherium

Prosotherium

Paedotherium

Orders and familiesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Notoungulata in the Paleobiology Database. Retrieved April 2013.
  2. ^ Turvey, Samuel T. (2009-05-28). Holocene Extinctions. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191579981.
  3. ^ Webb, S. D. (1976). "Mammalian Faunal Dynamics of the Great American Interchange". Paleobiology. 2 (3): 220–234. JSTOR 2400220.
  4. ^ Marshall, L. G.; Cifelli, R. L. (1990). "Analysis of changing diversity patterns in Cenozoic land mammal age faunas, South America". Palaeovertebrata. 19: 169–210. Retrieved 2018-10-08.
  5. ^ Webb, S. D. (1991). "Ecogeography and the Great American Interchange". Paleobiology. 17 (3): 266–280. doi:10.1017/S0094837300010605. JSTOR 2400869.
  6. ^ Lundelius, E. L.; Bryant, V. M.; Mandel, R.; Thies, K. J.; Thoms, A. (January 2013). "The first occurrence of a toxodont (Mammalia, Notoungulata) in the United States". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 33 (1): 229–232. doi:10.1080/02724634.2012.711405.
  7. ^ a b Welker et al. 2015
  8. ^ Buckley 2015
  9. ^ a b Westbury et al. 2017
  10. ^ Cifelli 1993
  11. ^ Missiaen et al. 2006
  12. ^ Billet 2011

BibliographyEdit

  • Cifelli, Richard L (1993). "The phylogeny of the native South American ungulates". In Szalay, F.S.; Novacek, M.J.; McKenna, M.C. Mammal phylogeny: Placentals. 2. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 195–216. ISBN 0-387-97853-4. OCLC 715426850.
  • Missiaen, P; Smith, T; Guo, DY; Bloch, JI; Gingerich, PD (August 2006). "Asian gliriform origin for arctostylopid mammals". Naturwissenschaften. 93 (8): 407–11. doi:10.1007/s00114-006-0122-1. PMID 16865388.
  • Roth, Santiago (1903). "Los Ungulados Sudamericanos". Anales del Museo de La Plata (Sección Paleontológica). 5: 1–36. OCLC 14012855.
  • Welker, F.; Collins, M. J.; Thomas, J. A.; Wadsley, M.; Brace, S.; Cappellini, E.; Turvey, S. T.; Reguero, M.; Gelfo, J. N.; Kramarz, A.; Burger, J.; Thomas-Oates, J.; Ashford, D. A.; Ashton, P. D.; Rowsell, K.; Porter, D. M.; Kessler, B.; Fischer, R.; Baessmann, C.; Kaspar, S.; Olsen, J. V.; Kiley, P.; Elliott, J. A.; Kelstrup, C. D.; Mullin, V.; Hofreiter, M.; Willerslev, E.; Hublin, J.-J.; Orlando, L.; Barnes, I.; MacPhee, R. D. E. (2015-03-18). "Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates". Nature. 522: 81–84. doi:10.1038/nature14249. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 25799987.
  • Westbury, M.; Baleka, S.; Barlow, A.; Hartmann, S.; Paijmans, J. L. A.; Kramarz, A.; Forasiepi, A. M.; Bond, M.; Gelfo, J. N.; Reguero, M. A.; López-Mendoza, P.; Taglioretti, M.; Scaglia, F.; Rinderknecht, A.; Jones, W.; Mena, F.; Billet, G.; de Muizon, C.; Aguilar, J. L.; MacPhee, R. D. E.; Hofreiter, M. (2017-06-27). "A mitogenomic timetree for Darwin's enigmatic South American mammal Macrauchenia patachonica". Nature Communications. 8: 15951. doi:10.1038/ncomms15951.

Further readingEdit

  • Carroll, Robert Lynn (1988). Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 9780716718222. OCLC 14967288.
  • McKenna, M.C. (1975). "Toward a phylogenetic classification of the Mammalia". In Luckett, W.P.; Szalay, F.S. Phylogeny of the primates: a multidisciplinary approach (Proceedings of WennerGren Symposium no. 61, Burg Wartenstein, Austria, July 6–14, 1974). New York: Plenum. pp. 21–46. doi:10.1007/978-1-4684-2166-8_2. ISBN 978-1-4684-2168-2. OCLC 1693999.
  • McKenna, Malcolm C.; Bell, Susan K. (1997). Classification of Mammals Above the Species Level. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231110138. OCLC 37345734.