|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
This includes aspects of the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern, size), i.e. external morphology (or eidonomy), as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs, i.e. internal morphology (or anatomy). This is in contrast to physiology, which deals primarily with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts.
The word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek don, morphé, meaning "form", and λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, study, research".
While the concept of form in biology, opposed to function, backs to Aristotle (see Aristotle's biology), the field of morphology was developed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1790) and independently by the German anatomist and physiologist Karl Friedrich Burdach (1800).
In 1830, Cuvier and Geoffroy engaged in a famous debate, which is said to exemplify the two major deviations in biological thinking at the time – whether animal structure was due to function or evolution.
In English-speaking countries, the term "molecular morphology" has been used for some time for describing the structure of compound molecules, such as polymers  and ribonucleic acid (RNA). The term "gross morphology" refers to the collective structures or an organism as a whole as a general description of the form and structure of an organism, taking into account all of its structures without specifying an individual structure.
Divisions of morphologyEdit
- Comparative Morphology is analysis of the patterns of the locus of structures within the body plan of an organism, and forms the basis of taxonomical categorization.
- Functional Morphology is the study of the relationship between the structure and function of morphological features.
- Experimental Morphology is the study of the effects of external factors upon the morphology of organisms under experimental conditions, such as the effect of genetic mutation.
- "Anatomy" is a "branch of morphology that deals with the structure of organisms".
Morphology and classificationEdit
Most taxa differ morphologically from other taxa. Typically, closely related taxa differ much less than more distantly related ones, but there are exceptions to this. Cryptic species are species which look very similar, or perhaps even outwardly identical, but are reproductively isolated. Conversely, sometimes unrelated taxa acquire a similar appearance as a result of convergent evolution or even mimicry. In addition, there can be morphological differences within a species, such as in Apoica flavissima where queens are significantly smaller than workers. A further problem with relying on morphological data is that what may appear, morphologically speaking, to be two distinct species, may in fact be shown by DNA analysis to be a single species. The significance of these differences can be examined through the use of allometric engineering in which one or both species are manipulated to phenocopy the other species.
3D cell morphology:classificationEdit
Invention and development of microscopy enable the observation of 3-D cell morphology with both high spatial and temporal resolution. The dynamic processes of these cell morphology which are controlled by a complex system play an important role in varied important biological process, such as immune and invasive responses. 
- . askoxford.com http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/morphology?view=uk. Retrieved 2010-06-24. Missing or empty
- Mägdefrau, Karl (1992). Geschichte der Botanik [History of Botany] (2 ed.). Jena: Gustav Fischer Verlag. ISBN 3-437-20489-0.
- Richards, R. J. (2008). A Brief History of Morphology. In: The Tragic Sense of Life. Ernst Haeckel and the Struggle over Evolutionary Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Di Gregorio, M. A. (2005). From Here to Eternity: Ernst Haeckel and Scientific Faith. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.
- Appel, Toby (1987). The Cuvier-Geoffroy Debate: French Biology in the Decades Before Darwin. New York: Oxford University Press.
- "Polymer Morphology". ceas.uc.edu/. Retrieved 2010-06-24.
- "Anatomy – Definition of anatomy by Merriam-Webster". merriam-webster.com.
- A. D. Doyle, R. J. Petrie, M. L. Kutys, and K. M. Yamada, “Dimensions in cell migration,” Curr. Opin. Cell Biol., vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 642–649, 2013.
- A. C. Dufour, T. Y. Liu, D. Christel, T. Robin, C. Beryl, T. Roman, G. Nancy, O.H. Alfred, and J. C. Olivo-Marin. "Signal Processing Challenges in Quantitative 3-D Cell Morphology: More than meets the eye." IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 30-40, 2015.