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King penguins
Ostriches

This page lists living orders and families of birds. The links below should then lead to family accounts and hence to individual species.

The passerines (perching birds) alone account for well over 5000 species. In total there are about 10,000 species of birds described worldwide, though one estimate of the real number places it at almost twice that[1].

Taxonomy is very fluid in the age of DNA analysis, so comments are made where appropriate, and all numbers are approximate. In particular see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy for a very different classification.

Contents

PhylogenyEdit

Cladogram of modern bird relationships based on Jarvis, E.D. et al. (2014)[2] with some clade names after Yury, T. et al. (2013).[3]

Aves

Palaeognathae (ratites etc.)


Neognathae

Galloanserae (ducks, chickens, etc.)


Neoaves
Columbea

Mirandornithes (flamingos and grebes)




Columbidae (pigeons)




Mesitornithidae (mesites)



Pteroclididae (sandgrouses)





Passerea


Cypselomorphae (hummingbirds, swifts)




Cuculidae (cuckoos)




Otididae (bustards)



Musophagidae (turacos)








Opisthocomidae (hoatzin)




Gruiformes (rails and cranes)



Charadriiformes (shorebirds)







Aequornithes (loons, penguins, herons, pelicans, storks, etc)




Eurypygiformes (sunbittern, kagu)



Phaethontidae (tropicbirds)




Telluraves
Afroaves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartidae (condors and New World vultures)



Accipitriformes (hawks, eagles, vultures etc.)





Strigiformes (owls)




Coliidae (mousebirds)


Eucavitaves

Leptosomatidae (cuckoo roller)


Cavitaves

Trogonidae (trogons)


Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes)




Coraciformes (kingfishers etc.)



Piciformes (woodpeckers etc.)









Australaves

Cariamidae (seriemas)


Eufalconimorphae

Falconidae (falcons)


Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots)



Passeriformes (songbirds and kin)












PaleognathaeEdit

The flightless and mostly giant Struthioniformes lack a keeled sternum and are collectively known as ratites. Together with the Tinamiformes, they form the Paleognathae or "old jaws", one of the two superorders recognized within the taxonomic class Aves.

StruthioniformesEdit

 
Greater rhea pair

Africa; 2 species.

NotopalaeognathaeEdit

RheiformesEdit

South America; 2 species.

TinamiformesEdit

South America; 45 species.

NovaeratitaeEdit

CasuariiformesEdit

Australasia; 4 species.

ApterygiformesEdit

Australasia; 5 species.

NeognathaeEdit

Nearly all living birds belong to the superorder Neognathae or "new jaws". With their keeled sternum (breastbone), unlike the ratites, they are known as carinatae.

GalloanseraeEdit

AnseriformesEdit

Worldwide; 150 species.

GalliformesEdit

 
Australian Brush turkey

Worldwide; 250 species.

NeoavesEdit

ColumbeaEdit

MirandornithesEdit
PodicipediformesEdit

Worldwide; 19 species

PhoenicopteriformesEdit

Worldwide; 6 species.

ColumbimorphaeEdit
ColumbiformesEdit

Worldwide; 300 species.

PteroclidiformesEdit

Africa, Europe, Asia; 16 species

MesitornithiformesEdit

Madagascar; 3 species

PassereaEdit

CaprimulgiformesEdit

Worldwide; 500 species.

OtidimorphaeEdit
CuculiformesEdit

Worldwide; 126 species.

MusophagiformesEdit

Africa; 23 species.

OtidiformesEdit

Africa and Eurasia; 27 species

OpisthocomiformesEdit

South America; 1 species.

CursorimorphaeEdit
GruiformesEdit

Worldwide; 164 species.

CharadriiformesEdit

Worldwide; 350 species

EurypygiformesEdit

Neotropics and New Caledonia; 2 species.

PhaethontiformesEdit

Oceanic; 3 species.

GaviiformesEdit

North America, Eurasia; 5 species.

SphenisciformesEdit

Antarctic and southern waters; 17 species.

ProcellariiformesEdit

Pan-oceanic; 120 species.

CiconiiformesEdit

Worldwide; 19 species.

PelecaniformesEdit

Worldwide; 108 species.

SuliformesEdit

Worldwide; 59 species.

AccipitriformesEdit

Worldwide; 200 species.

StrigiformesEdit

Worldwide; 130 species.

ColiiformesEdit

Sub-Saharan Africa; 6 species.

TrogoniformesEdit

Sub-Saharan Africa, Americas, Asia; 35 species.

CoraciiformesEdit

Worldwide; 144 species.

BucerotiformesEdit

Old World, New Guinea; 64 species.

LeptosomatiformesEdit

Madagascar; 1 species.

PiciformesEdit

Worldwide except Australasia; 400 species.

CariamiformesEdit

South America; 2 species.

FalconiformesEdit

Worldwide; 60 species.

PsittaciformesEdit

Pan-tropical, southern temperate zones; 330 species.

PasseriformesEdit

Worldwide; 5000 species.

Simplified classificationEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Barrowclough GF, Cracraft J, Klicka J, Zink RM (2016) How Many Kinds of Birds Are There and Why Does It Matter? PLoS ONE 11(11): e0166307. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166307
  2. ^ Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904 . PMID 25504713. 
  3. ^ Yuri, T.; et al. (2013). "Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals". Biology. 2 (1): 419–444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419. PMC 4009869 . PMID 24832669.